Reservation is a Rule enforced by Indian Law according to which a percentage of seats are reserved in the public sector units, union and state civil services, union and state government departments and in all public and private educational institutions, except in the religious/ linguistic minority educational institutions, for the socially and educationally backward communities and the Scheduled Castes.The reservation policy is also extended for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes for representation in the Parliament of India. Chatrapati Sahuji Maharaj who was the King of Kolhapur in Maharashtra introduced reservation in favour of backward classes as early as 1902 to eradicate poverty and to give them their due share in the State administration.The notification of 1902 created 50% reservation in services for backward classes/communities in the State of Kolhapur. The notification of 1902 created 50% reservation in services for backward classes/communities in the State of Kolhapur. This notification is considered to be the first government order providing for reservation for the welfare of SC, ST and BC classes in India.
Effect of reservation on the Education
(i) Shortage Of Faculty
There is a huge shortage of teachers, more importantly shortage of quality teachers in educational institutes. The number of students has been on the rise with each passing year but the number of teachers are same. The ratio of teachers and students is highly unbalanced. According to the Government the total number of seats belonging to general category will rise which has been far from been implemented.
(ii) Deficient Infrastructure
In order to promote higher technical education in the country, the Government has planned to open few more IITs and IIMs. The current IITs and IIMs are already facing shortage of faculty members and it is anonymous as to how the government will manage more faculty members for newer institutes. And to add to it the government has not solved the problems related to shortage of laboratories, playgrounds, staff, hostels and classrooms in existing institutes.
(iii) Negative Effect on Merit
The repute of an institution depends on the outstanding results the students produce. IIT or IIM or IISC are renowned for the quality of education and excellent results it produces. The idea of reservation will have a direct consequence on the quality of graduates that these institutes would deliver. A normal SC or ST candidate is ensured of a seat while a more worthy student might not be able to get a seat which is not his fault but of reservation. It puts a dark shadow on the institutes excellence as well.
(iv) Brain Drain
Every country banks upon its youth population to take it to new height of importance and to back it, a country needs to provide everyone with best education. Failing to do so has resulted and is resulting in a Phenomena known as Brain Drain which is a great loss to not only to the pride of that country but it accounts to economic loss as well.
There are also some other fields where reservation also effect
(i) Shortage of Investor’s
(ii) Tool for Politicians
(iii) Danger to the Unity of the People
(iv) Misuse of Reservations
- Efforts are needed at maximizing the educational infrastructure, allocating more funds and reforming the entire teaching and learning process and it’s administration.
- Reservation is not the only solution to uplift the backward. Effective implementation is needed for policies which provide the basic necessities of life like-food, clothing, shelter, medical facilities. These need to be provided at nominal rates through fair price shops which are exclusive to the economically backward.
- Partial reservation in the form of limiting the number of children of backward classes who will receive the benefit is another possible solution. A family comprising of 3-4 children getting the reservation is not beneficial on the whole.
- This could also be achieved where A reservation limited to one generation only is another effective solution. A family which has already availed it once will not be allowed to avail it in the next generation.
- Putting backward classes in general category upon reaching self sufficiency will reduce the number of such castes and reservation will become more meaningful.
- Bridging the rural-urban gap need to be done effectively and immediately. The inequality rising from this gap itself creates weaker sections of the society. Putting more efforts in providing them all the basic facilities instead of beautifying is a more wise option.
- Reducing the percentage of marks needed to qualify for admission is more feasible. If a candidate belonging to general category requires 70% qualifying marks than it can be reduced to about 10%. This will also help in maintaining the academic standard of an institution.